Distance: 260 km.
GPS: 57.809959, 27.614436.
Holy Dormition Pskov-Caves Monastery - one of the largest and well-known in the Russian monasteries with a long history. The name of the monastery is due to it being in the caves (in Old Russian - Pechory), called the "God of the building" (that is, created by God). In 1473 there was a consecrated cave church of the Assumption, Reverend Jonah dug into a hill of sandstone. This year is considered the year of foundation of the monastery. The hill, which are Church of the Assumption, and the God of buildings cave called the Holy Mountain.
The monastery has never in its history been closed. In the interwar period (from February 1920 to January 1945) was in Estonia, so that was not affected by anti-clerical and anti-religious activities of Soviet power.
In 1967-2006 years in the monastery he labored Archimandrite John (Krestiankin).
The early history of the monastery
Reliable information about the beginning of monastic life on the site of the modern monastery there is not carried out and research the origin of caves located in the monastery. These caves are located in sandstone sediments on the banks of the now existing Kamenetz creek. Based on studies of other caves located in the Pechora, which researcher IA Agapov concluded their natural erosion and suffusion origin, caves, located in the Pskov-Caves Monastery, may also be of natural origin.
Legends about the beginning of the monastic life in these caves recorded in the annals of the monastery, and subsequently developed in the Pskov-Caves Paterik. It is possible that some of the details have been added to this tradition in the twentieth century. According to legend, the cave became known to local residents in 1392. This conditional date that coincides with the year of the death of St. Sergius of Radonezh, was chosen to indicate the symbolic continuity of spiritual life. In the caves settled monks, fled to Pskov land from the south, from the raids of Crimean Tatars. From the legends we know the name of only one of these recluses, Reverend Marcus, called "initial monk" monastery. If early publication legends indicate a legendary figure of Mark, in the later editions of the history of the monastery, Mark is already a historical character. According to legend, the land around the future of the monastery went to Ivan Dementiev, who accidentally (by God's providence) found the cave, which had already had an inscription "God Buildings cave."
According to the chronicles of the monastery in 1470 in a cave he settled priest John previously served in the Church of the Great Martyr George in St. George's Livonian (Dorpat, now Tartu in Estonia). Close to God Buildings caves he dug a cave in which gave a church in honor of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, consecrated in 1473. In his writings he helped wife Maria, he took monastic vows with the name Vassa. After her death, John was tonsured with the name Jonah. Ivan Dementev monks handed a piece of land around the temple, and soon formed a small monastery. The caves became a graveyard for the monks.
It is on the border between Russia and Livonia, where the Germans reigned, dwelling times (according to the chronicles of the monastery) was exposed to ruin by the Livonians. The rise of the monastic life, recorded not only tradition in monastic chronicles, but in the Pskov chronicles, started in 1519, when the Moscow government in the face of the Pskov deacon of the Grand Duke Misyura Munekhin and Podyachev Ortyusha Pskovitina "Nazirat miserable place neznaemo nobody is under German abroad "- recognized the strategic importance of the position in front of the monastery (20 kilometers) from the Livonian castle Neuhaus. In 1523, when abbot Dorofea efforts Munekhin monastery was fortified with wooden walls, expanded the cave temple on the Holy Mountain set the church in the name of Anthony and Theodosius - the founders of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra. Initiation of the monastery Cathedral of the Assumption (in the monastery), and the church - Antony and Theodosius, as well pereemstvennost emphasized the spiritual life and the significance of the new monastery. Next abbot Gherasim introduced in the monastery cenobitic charter modeled on the Kyiv-Pechersk, as approved, and benefactor of the monastery Munekhin.
Monastery during the Livonian War and the Northern
This flourishing monastery associated with its subsequent abbot, Martyr Cornelius. In 1541, he put in a monastery refectory church of the Annunciation, expanded Assumption Church, monastic caves dug further. During his abode into a strong fortress, around the monastery were built stone walls (1558-1565 year) and was built in the name of the Gate Church of St. Nicholas. Abbot Cornelius died in 1570, according to legend, was killed by his own betrayal zapodozrevshim king Ivan the Terrible. According to the manuscripts in Trinity-Sergius Lavra, it happened at the monastery gate. Repented, King suffered a body abbot at the Assumption Church. Since Nikolkogo way from the temple to the Assumption Church is called "Bloody way."
The walls of the monastery served as his defense more than 150 years - until the conclusion of the Treaty of Nystad in 1721. During this time, the monastery survived the siege of the troops of the Polish King Stefan Batory (1581), Polish troops under the command of J. Chodkiewicz and A. Lisowski and Swedish troops of King Gustav II Adolf (with breaks in the years 1611-1614), troops of the Swedish king Karl XII ( in 1703).
In the years 1758-1759 Intercession Church was built over the Church of the Dormition. In 1792-1800 years in the monastery church was built in honor of Lazarus the Four, in the years 1815-1827 in memory of the deliverance of Pskov by Napoleonic troops was built St. Michael's Cathedral, Candlemas church was constructed in 1870.
From 1785 to 1824 had worked in the monastery Reverend Lazarus vision, three days is as if quite dead. In 1822, Emperor Alexander I had a conversation with him privately.
In 1920, the Pechersk monastery on the Tartu Peace Treaty was related to Estonia and remained there until the accession of Estonia to the USSR in 1940, and this has been saved from the general destruction and desecration.
From 1896 to 1960, the monastery was active Hieroschemamonk Simeon (Zhelnin). In 2003 he was canonized.
During the Great Patriotic War
During the war, the monastery churches hit by artillery fire, suffered damage and refectory Fraternal housing.
After the occupation of the Pskov-Caves Monastery remained in double subordination: the metropolitan of Tallinn Alexander (Paulus) and the Baltic Exarch Metropolitan Sergius (Voskresensky).
From 1940 until October 1941 he was vicar of the monastery, Archimandrite Parthenius (Shatinin). In October 1941, Parthenius (Shatinin) went into retirement for old age, and by the decision of the leadership of the elders took the abbot Paul (Gorshkov), who ran the monastery before his arrest, the Soviet secret service in late 1944.
In the spring of 1942 turned out to be a monastery settled in the occupied territory skhiepiskop Macarius (Vasiliev), which previously was on the "irregular situation" (catacomb bishop).
C August 1941 by February 1944, along with brothers of the monastery abbot Paul (Gorshkov) participated in the Pskov Orthodox mission. The purpose of this mission was to revive the spiritual life in the occupied territories by the Germans. Priests externally rendered loyalty to the occupation authorities to be able to conduct services. There is evidence that in the Pskov-Pechersky Monastery Gestapo wanted people were hiding under the domes.
During the occupation, in the Pskov-Pechersky Monastery held congresses and higher clergy meeting of the Baltic Exarchate, in particular the so-called pastoral meeting, held on 28 August 1943 in the Sretensky temple, which was attended by Metropolitan of Vilnius and Lithuania Sergey (Voskresensky), Exarch of Latvia and Estonia, Narva Archbishop Paul (Dmitrovsky), Bishop John of Riga (Garklavs), Bishop Daniel Kovno (Yuzvyuk) skhiepiskop Macarius (Vasiliev), and others. Monastic brethren represented the abbot Paul (Gorshkov), monks Ilia, Arkady, Nikon, skhiieromonah Simeon. On the part of the occupation authorities were present Gebietskommissar, the mayor of the town Petseri, prefect of police.
In May 1943, the Pskov-Caves Monastery visited and spoke to the inhabitants of AA Vlasov.
On the night of March 31 to April 1, 1944 during the flight of Soviet aviation in the monastery of shrapnel bomb killed skhiepiskop Macarius.
After the liberation of Pskov region abbot Paul (Gorshkov) was included in the commission of inquiry into crimes in the invaders near Pskov. But in October 1944 was followed by an unexpected arrest, he was accused of collaboration with the occupiers. He was sentenced to 15 years for anti-Soviet activities. He died in 1950. Rehabilitated in 1997.
The post-war period
January 16, 1945 Pechora region was transferred from the Estonian SSR to the Pskov region of the RSFSR. Nearly 40 years on the territory of the Russian Federation operated only two monasteries - Pskov-Pechora and open in 1946, Trinity-Sergius Lavra.
To assure the surrounding population in the "freedom of conscience in the Soviet Union" the Council for Russian Orthodox Church organized a summer 1946 visit to the monastery by Patriarch Alexy (Simanska).
Since 1949 to 1954 he was governor of Archimandrite Pimen (Izvekov), later Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia.
In 1957 he moved to the monastery of Valaam seven elders in 1939, transported from the island of Valaam in Finland.
From 1958 to 1963, the monastery was the inhabitant of Sampson (Sievers) - Hieroschemamonk Russian Orthodox Church. In 1963 the monastery leadership ousted Sampson, according to the official version - to avoid a conflict with the Soviet authorities (formally, although after the amnesty, Sampson escaped from the camp and at the same time led an active religious propaganda). It was not the first conflict with the Simeon church leadership, the first took place even during the stay of Simeon in the Holy Trinity Alexander Nevsky Lavra, but ended in reconciliation. After treatment Sampson to Patriarch Alexis I (Simanska) conflict was smoothed, Sampson was placed in state in Moscow and in 1966 he was tonsured into the great schema.
July 28, 1959 decree of His Holiness Patriarch Alexy governor was appointed abbot Alipio (Ravens) (in 1961 elevated to the rank of Archimandrite) - until March 12, 1975 who worked in the restoration and preservation of the Pskov-Pechersk monastery. Alipio not allowed to close the monastery in difficult years for the Church Khrushchev antireligious campaign, thanks to his efforts in 1973 to the monastery back treasures taken out by the Nazis from the sacristy of the monastery, was also promoted repair fortifications, temples and monastic buildings.
In the 1980s, for the blessing of Metropolitan John (Razumov) large restoration works were held in the monastery.
In the monastery, spent the last years of his life, Metropolitan Veniamin (Fedchenkov), Archbishop Vladimir (Kobets), bishops Theodore (Tekuchёv) Ioanniky (Speransky), Andrew (Sukhenko). All of them are buried in the monastery caves.
In 1986, the tower of the monastery of St. Nicholas was consecrated a church in honor of Martyr Cornelius, and in 1995 on the Holy Mountain monastery - wooden church in honor of the Pskov-Pechersk reverend.
In September 1995, Archimandrite of the Pskov-Caves Monastery Roman (Stallions) at the request of the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Alexy II, has resigned. He was accused in the press that found in the caves of the monastery coffin Gavrilenkova Nicholas, one of the leaders of Velikie organized crime group, who was killed June 30, 1995
Bishop Tikhon (Shevkunov) based on the shot at the monastery in 1986 created the film material "Pskov-Pechersk monastery." In 2011 it was published his book "" unholy saints "and other stories", many stories which are related to the Pskov-Caves Monastery, where the author had worked.
In the monastery are: God Buildings Caves (near and far), church of the Assumption, Intercession, Candlemas, St. Michael's (Cathedral), the Annunciation, Lazarus, Nicholas shot, the Resurrection of Christ (in distant caves), Kornilevskaya, Pskov-Pechersk reverend and Belfry, abbot House, Fraternal housing Saint springs, Sacristy, city walls and towers.
Currently Caves and Sretenskaya church open all day. Login to distant God Buildings cave made by appointment. Assumption Church and St. Michael's Cathedral are open only during religious services.
God Buildings Caves
The complex of buildings God caves consists of the near and distant caves. Caves -. U-shaped in plan view and have a length of about 15 m They are the tombs with relics of St. Mark, Jonah, Lazarus and the Nun Vassa. Above the tomb of the Venerable Lazarus hang his chains.
For the Near Caves followed by long, consisting of seven underground-street galleries with cave church of the Resurrection of Christ at the end of the 6th gallery (church street), and the eve of the end of the main street. These caves are the convent cemetery.
The length of the distant caves is about 200 m. They are kept at a constant temperature of about + 10 ° C. Initially, the cave served only to bury the monks. Then, in the caves began to bury the pious laity: statesmen, princes, nobles, churchwardens, the pilgrims, the monastery defenders. The first lay buried in the caves was the sovereign's Misjur Munekhin (1528).
Near the eve buried: Bishop George (Sadkovskaya), Metropolitan Veniamin (Fedchenkov), the elders of the Pskov-Pechersk monastery, Strive to it in the XX century: Valaam elders (Hieroschemamonk Michael, abbot Luke, abbot Gennady monk Sergius, Schemamonk Nicholas Hieroschemamonk John , Schemamonk German), Archimandrite Seraphim (Rosenberg), Archimandrite John (Krestiankin).
On the mountain site of the temple of the Resurrection of Christ is buried Archimandrite Alipio (Ravens), in a niche of the temple of marble slab other elders of the monastery buried: Schema-archimandrite Agapi (Agapov), Archimandrite Jerome (Tikhomirov), abbot Savva (Ostapenko), abbot Onesiphorus (Mikhailov) skhiierodiakon Mark (Murin). The altar of the church is a marble icon of the Resurrection.
Among the lay buried in the caves of the ancestors of Alexander Pushkin, Mikhail Kutuzov, Musorgsky, AN Pleshcheeva, VN Tatishchev and others. The caves lie Simansky representatives of an ancient race, which took place from the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Alexy I.
The monks of the monastery are buried on the fifth and sixth streets, the laity - in other streets. They are buried in coffins placed in the walls of caves, not falling asleep ground. In the caves there is no smell of smoldering bodies of the dead.
The total number of graves is about 10 thousand. Man.
Assumption cave and Intercession Church
Assumption cave church is the main and most ancient temple of the monastery. It was excavated from the hill of sandstone father John (Jonah in the tonsure) and consecrated in 1473. Assumption Church is only the front facade, it goes the opposite side of the mountain. In 1523, when abbot Dorofea church was renewed and expanded, built a chapel in the name of Anthony and Theodosius of the Kiev Caves. He supervises the construction gosudarev Misjur Munekhin. In the years 1758-1759 over the temple built Intercession Church. Thus, the Assumption and St. Basil's churches have a common front. Log in Pokrovsky temple is from the distant God of the building caves. In the XIX century on the Assumption Protection Church built multicolored domes in the Ukrainian Baroque style, shaped like the head of the Assumption Cathedral of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra.
The Dormition Church are:
- The miraculous icon of Our Lady of the Assumption in conversation (with the image on the sides of the most important events in the life of the Mother of God), written Pskov iconographer Aleksei Maly and in 1521 donated to the monastery.
- Two honored list with the miraculous icon "Tenderness" Mother of God, written in the XVI and XIX centuries.
- The reliquary Martyr Cornelius.
- Icon of St. Nicholas in conversation, XVI century.
- Church of St. Nicholas Goalkeeper
The preserved section of the original wall between the prison tower and the church of St. Nicholas PATH, which is arranged on the belfry.
Built in 1564 by architect Paul Zabolotnov (according to other sources in 1565), both possible with the construction of fortifications around the monastery. Consecrated in the name in the name of St. Nicholas. Gate Church could have some time to be the main entrance to the monastery, the holy gates. In this case, the Nikolskaya Tower and an additional fence walls that formed Dhahab before the gates were added later. The church today has a common roof with Nikolskaya Tower of the fortress wall. On the site of the original wall, between the prison tower and the church was a small belfry, presumably simultaneous temple porch which served as the buttress that supported belfry. This inner wall Dhahabi was subsequently demolished and the remaining area under the belfry was further strengthened extension. Due to the fact that the church was built as a gate, it is called the Church of St. Nicholas the goalkeeper, as well as Nikola PATH (in the church there is a wooden figure of St. Nicholas image with a sword in his hand).
To the east of the Assumption Cathedral, along the same line, it is the main monastic bell tower or bell tower, a stone of several columns set in a line, from west to east. The construction of the belfry was started in 1523 on the site of the old wood.
Large belfry - one of the largest architectural structures of this type (as well as the belfry of Novgorod St. Sophia Cathedral, the belfry of the church of the Epiphany and Paromenskaya Assumption Church in Pskov).
It has six main spans (ringing) and seventh, adjoined later, thereby forming as it were a second tier.
Collection bells Pskov-Caves Monastery - one of the most important as the Pskov land, and in the North-West Russia.
St. Michael's Cathedral
Cathedral in honor of God Archangel Michael is the largest structure of the monastery. It was erected in the years 1815-1827 by the Italian architect LI Ruska in the classical style. The cathedral was built in memory of the deliverance of Pskov by the Napoleonic invasion, which occurred after the procession with the Pskov-Pechersk icon of Our Lady of the Assumption around Pskov. On the night of the following day (8 (20), October 1812) Russian troops under the command of Field Marshal Count Wittgenstein freed Polotsk (Second Battle of Polotsk), thereby freeing Pskov from danger.
On gilded metal boards installed in the temple are engraved the names of the commanders and soldiers of the number of housing Wittgenstein.
Shrine Temple is a right hand of St. Tatiana passed Archimandrite John (Krestiankin) in 1977.
Rebuilt in 1870 in pseudo-Russian style of the former monastryskoy refectory, built in 1541, the year, and is flanked on the west to the Church of the Annunciation. It is assumed that the alteration does not cozero bearing structures and in general under the late decor preserved walls of the 16th-century building. The basement originally housed monastic "life" - bread, mukoseynya treasury (for which a separate building of the sacristy was built later), cellar "cabbage"; Now it occupied space of the reading room and vegetable store.
In the temple there are lists with the miraculous icon of Our Lady "Three Hands" and "Perishing" in 2003 established cancer with the relics of St. Simeon (Zhelnina).
Collegiate Big sacristy or treasury (treasury of the church) with the abbot Cornelius was located in the basement of the Annunciation Church of the refectory. The dating of the modern single building sacristy was given various scientists within the XVI-XVIII centuries, it is known that some sacristy burnt down in the fire of the year 1687/88. A recent study involving a large number of arguments, including the preserved images sacristy material (brick) and the clerks argued monastic books dating end of the XVII century, after the fire of 1687 and the end to the beginning of the Northern War. More specifically, it is proposed in 1688, when a brick masons working tihvintsam Isachko Fedoseyev and Senka Ivanov, brick Patrekeyu Leontievu master mason and Pechersky Danilka Gerasimov was vyplocheno a total of more than ten rubles. The three-storey building located opposite the Great Belfry, adjacent to the Sretensky temple. It has three levels and is completed a small blue dome with gold stars. On the floors there are storage, proper sacristy and library.
In the sacristy are kept gold and silver crosses, precious salaries and garments, shroud, clothing, gold and silver church utensils, gifts from the monastery Russian tsars and emperors. All of these valuable items were taken by the German invaders during the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945, then returned with the help of the German government to the monastery in 1973 when the governor of Alipio (Voronov). 504 (the remaining 62 missing) were returned from 566 exported items.
In the monastery there are two saints source: in honor of Martyr Cornelius (located opposite the Church of the Dormition, near the Sacristy) and artesian - in honor of the Icon of Our Lady Life-Giving Spring (located opposite the church of the Annunciation). In 1911, over the Life-giving Spring hexagonal chapel was built.
Walls and towers
Stone walls with six towers and three gates were built in the years 1558-1565 at the beginning of the Livonian War to protect against Livonians having strong Neuhaus castle 20 km from the monastery. Later, four more towers were built. Pskov-Pechersk fortress withstood a two-month siege of the detachment of troops and the Stefan Batory Hungarian detachment under the command Bornemisza in 1581, and later repeatedly participated in the border fighting until the end of the Great Northern War in 1721.
Currently, the monastery has 9 towers on the site of lumber tower that was destroyed in 1581, the Cathedral of the Archangel Michael was built. Holy Gates of the Monastery are in Peter's tower, built in the XVII century (originally used for the gate Nikolskaya Gate Church, was carried out through the passage Dhahab formed adjoined to it from outside (maybe a little bit later the very gate of the church) Nikolskaya Tower).
Tower Upper grids
- Taylovskoy near the tower, above the ravine and flowing along its bottom Kamenetz creek. At the bottom of the tower is lined with small stone arch, through which a stream of water to get inside the fortress. Stone arch or vault was closed iron bars, to the besiegers did not use the creek to penetrate the fortress. Grid gave the name and the tower itself. Despite the fact that the tower Upper grids is at the bottom of the ravine, it is the highest in the Pechora fortress, and its upper point reaches a height of 25 meters. Behind the walls are hidden martial 6 tiers with loopholes and broad chambers for installation of guns. Tent lookout tower topped by a platform - guard, guard hut, which can be easily seen approaches to the fortress and the nearest area. From the tower, like the wings, divergent parts of the walls - the fence, combining into one tower, set on the banks of the ravine. Especially picturesque this area of combat fortifications looks a tourist area located almost opposite the Tower of the Upper grids.
Tower lower grilles
, as well as Tower of the upper grids, placed on the bottom of the ravine, creek downstream, and closes the northeastern arc of the fortress wall. The stream here is wider and deeper than where the fortress falls. Lower tower arrays has four tiers of combat. On each of the three lower four loopholes with extensive combat cameras. In the top tier - seven loopholes. Their location allows you to take control of virtually all areas of possible attacks. In addition, in the third tier had access to the ramparts. This detail is very important, because next to the tower are the lower gate. To strengthen the protection of the gate, and above them in the wall have been installed loopholes, among which is an icon-case with a picture of the Savior.